Introduction to Results and Discussion
Introduction to Results and Discussion

Results and Discussion are two most important parts of a research paper and needs to be vary carefully written.

RESULTS: A information obtained by experiment or some other scientific method; a quantity or formula obtained by calculation.

According to the research point of view:

Results are the source of matching key findings with the hypothesis, problem statement, techniques used in the paper or with the research objectives.

The core objective is to proficiently provide a quick view of major key findings of the paper to the reader.It is necessary to concisely present the key findings in a logical sequential order. Along with the key findings, negative results can also be displayed which can further help us for elaborating the reasoning in discussion section.The statistical data related to key findings should be presented in tables, figures and charts etc. but each and every time these presentation models are not necessary. Sometimes, the representation by means of textual data could fulfill the requirements as it depends upon the nature of key findings.

Types and structure of results


REE stands for result with evidence and explanation. While writing the results first thing that should be in every writers mind is to re-state the hypothesis, although these are not always required but it clarifies the results that we are going to discuss. After that it’s time to present the result in form of Tables and graphs depending on the nature of data. Decide which data are best presented in a tabular format and which are best presented in a graphic format. Avoid presenting the same data in both formats, that’s the one common mistake writers often do by showing the results in both tabular and graphical form for same data set.

Second step is the Explanation of data. Each graph and table must have a meaningful title, than explain the figure in two or three lines regarding what that figure is about. One common mistake the writers often do here is just to leave the figure with title.

Third step is explaining the data with evidence. To fulfill that, give at least one figure which compares the results with old methodologies. Problem arises when you are writing survey papers and there need to compare a lot of results. Present the strongest, most compelling data first and the weakest, least compelling data last. And although it is tempting, do not make interpretations nor draw conclusions about the data in the Results section; this is left to the Discussion section.

DISCUSSION: Discussion are often the most difficult part to write, and many writers feel they have nothing left to say after having written the paper. However, you need to keep in mind that most readers read the abstract and Discussion first. A discussion is where you summarize the paper’s findings and generalize their importance, discuss ambiguous data, and recommend further research.  An effective conclusion should provide closure for a paper, leaving the reader feeling satisfied that the concepts have been fully explained. Explain why your study is important to the reader; you should instill in the reader a sense of relevance. Prove to the reader, and the scientific community, that your findings are worthy of note, this means setting your paper in the context of previous work. Conclude with how your testing supports or disproves your hypothesis.  By the time you reach the end of your conclusion, there should be no question in the reader’s mind as to the validity of your claims.

The aim of the discussion is to outline and explain the results and to relate them to other theories and results. It is important that you do not repeat the result section here; this should be a simple summary of what was found. Mean do not include figures from the results just refer them.

Structure of Discussion/Conclusion

Discussion section consists of three major parts:

  1. REE
  2. PE
  3. PA


Begin with a clear statement of the principal findings by Referring to the most convincing results that are describe in the result section; Authors commonly make the mistake of hiding this message deep within the Discussion. For evidence, Proofread and witnessed by a colleague or professor who understands the experiment enough to analyze the topic you are working on, but also make sure that he/she was not involved in conducting the experiment.

PE (Possible Errors)

Identify possible sources of experimental design errors that could lead to fallacious data. For example; let say our proposed method produce best results when operate between 20 C to 45 C. but any other temperature than this could lead to falsification. Mentioning of possible error gets utmost important to mention when the risk of damage is much high if operate on different parameters other than suggested ones. E.g “Atomic Reactor”.  Mention to the reader how would error in technique give different results. Recommend ways to improve experiment to minimize theses sources of error.

PA (Practical Application)

These should be the last lines of discussion section. Explain the meaning or value of results in Short term and Long term. How are findings valuable to Science community, scientists and society.  Write what can you recommend for using the data for future experiments.